在全球為COP28做準備之際，全球高層人士將共同應對氣候變化挑戰。他們的目標包括將全球氣溫升幅控制在 1.5 攝氏度以下，協助脆弱社區適應氣候變化，以及到 2050 年實現淨零排放。包括《聯合國氣候變化框架公約》締約方代表、商界領袖、青年、氣候科學家、原住民和其他利益相關方在內的約7萬名代表將參加這些關鍵性的討論。
COP27標誌著在減緩氣候變化方面取得了重大進展，特別是成立了氣候「損失和損害」補償基金來解決及賠償因氣候脆弱國家及社區的損失和損害,適應和緩解氣候變化。這一歷史性舉措為遭受嚴重氣候變化影響的國家提供了財政援助，回應了長期以來的支持需求。此外，聖地牙哥損失和損害問題網路在治理結構和網域及程式選址方面也取得了進展, 啟動了一項耗資 31 億美元的綜合預警系統計畫，以加強對氣候變化引起的極端天氣事件的防備。會議強調了氣候融資改革的必要性，包括全面改革公共財政體系和多邊開發銀行，以減輕債務負擔，使發展中國家更容易獲得資金。
然而，COP27落幕後的承諾尚待兌現, 雖然討論了全球適應目標的潛在要素，但締約方未能確定該目標，只是為其制定了一個框架。此外，發達國家並沒有按照 COP26《格拉斯哥氣候公約》的承諾，在 2025 年前定立為適應資金投放雙倍額度的目標。在推動減排方面只取得了微弱進展，各方一再呼籲根據《巴黎協定》加強其 2030 年目標。然而，只有少數締約方提交了新或已更新的 "國家自主貢獻 ( Nationally Determined Contributions )”, 這些在 COP27 上未兌現的承諾很可能成為 COP28 的討論重點。
COP28的成果將對全球減緩氣候變化的努力產生重大影響，也是進一步做出承諾的時刻。締約方大會第二十八屆會議的討論需要在幾個方面取得進展，如損失和損害融資機制的細節，以幫助脆弱社區應對直接的氣候影響；推動實現全球融資目標，以説明資助發展中國家應對氣候變化的努力；加快能源和公正的過渡；以及縮小巨大的排放差距。各國政府將在《公約》締約方會議第二十八屆會議上就全球評估做出重要決定，並以此為契機，在 2025 年到期的下一輪氣候行動計畫中加快實現目標。全球評估表明，我們的進展過於緩慢。零散的共識將導致錯失減輕氣候變化最嚴重影響的機會，這表明即將召開的第二十八屆締約方會議在凝聚全球社會方面的 重要性。
COP28為確定將全球氣溫升幅控制在 1.5 攝氏度以內的解決方案提供了機會。它還將為各國準備更雄心勃勃的氣候計畫（即 "國家確定的貢獻"）提供資訊。許多有影響力的人士在決定COP28之前的氣候變化道路方面發揮了重要作用。環保活動家Greta Thunberg呼籲對氣候變化採取大膽行動，激發了新一代氣候活動家的熱情，從而贏得了全球關注。Elon Musk等商界領袖和金融界人士也通過投資可再生能源和利用 ESG 等框架促進可持續商業實踐，做出了值得一提的貢獻。COP28之前的主流觀點由一系列觀點組成，這些觀點將反映利益相關 方的不同利益和優先事項。以溫室氣體排放量較高的發達國家為例，他們可能會強調技術創新和基於市場的減排方案，同時關注經濟增長。而發展中國家往往主張富裕國家增加資金和技術援助，幫助他們適應氣候變化，促進他們向清潔能源過渡。民間組織和原住民團體則主張公平公正地過渡，優先考慮邊緣化社區的權利和福祉。隨著新的科學發現、技術進步和不斷變化的地緣政治動態影響著全球關於氣候變化的討論，COP28之前的主流觀點也將發生變化。未來的進展可能涉及世界各國政府、跨國公司和公民社會之間加強合作，加快向低碳經濟過渡。解決氣候變化的社會和環境問題的創新解決方案的出現是不可避免的，因為這人類進步最古老的基準。
本文由THINK ESG LIMITED企業可持續性發展研究員陸祖賢先生，和研究實習員Aaron Turnquest撰寫
As the world readies for COP 28, top global minds are set to tackle climate change challenges. Their objectives include keeping global temperature rise below 1.5 degrees Celsius, assisting vulnerable communities in adapting to climate change, and reaching net-zero emissions by 2050. About 70,000 delegates, including representatives from UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Parties, business leaders, youth, climate scientists, Indigenous Peoples, and other stakeholders, will participate in these pivotal discussions.
COP 27 marked significant strides in climate change mitigation, In particular, the Climate Loss and Damage Compensation Fund has been established to address and compensate for the loss and damage of climate-vulnerable countries and communities, and to adapt to and mitigate climate change. This historic initiative provides financial assistance to countries suffering from severe climate change impactsresponding to a longstanding demand for support. Additionally, the Santiago Network on Loss and Damage saw advancements in its governance structure and host selection process. A $3.1 billion plan was also launched for comprehensive early warning systems, bolstering preparedness for climate change induced extreme weather events. The conference underscored the need for climate finance reforms, including overhauling the public finance system and multilateral development banks to alleviate the debt burden and make finance more accessible for developing nations.
However, the commitments made at COP27 have yet to be fulfilled, and while the potential elements of a global adaptation target were discussed, Parties failed to identify the target and only developed a framework for it. Although potential elements of the Global Goal on Adaptation were discussed, parties failed to define the goal, only setting a framework for its development. Moreover, developed countries did not significantly advance towards doubling adaptation finance by 2025, as pledged in the COP26 Glasgow Climate Pact. The push for emission reductions saw only modest progress, with a repeated call for parties to strengthen their 2030 targets in line with the Paris Agreement. Yet, only a few parties submitted new or updated Nationally Determined Contributions. These unfulfilled promises from COP27 are likely to recur as key discussion points at COP28.
The outcome of COP 28 will have major implications for global climate change mitigation efforts and will represent a moment for further acts of commitment. The discussions at COP 28 need to make progress in several streams like the details of the loss and damage finance facility to help vulnerable communities deal with immediate climate impacts; driving towards a global goal on finance that would help fund developing countries’ efforts in addressing climate change; accelerating both an energy and a just transition; and closing the massive emissions gap. Governments will make an important decision on the global stock take at COP 28, which can be used to leverage an acceleration of the ambition in their next round of climate action plans due by 2025. The global stock take showed us that our progress is too slow. The event of fragmented consensus will result in missed opportunities to mitigate the most severe impacts of climate change, which shows the importance of the upcoming COP 28 holds in bringing together the global community.
COP 28 provides an opportunity to identify solutions for the limiting of the rise in global temperatures to 1.5 degrees Celsius. It will also inform countries to prepare for more ambitious climate plans, known as Nationally Determined Contributions. A good number of influential individuals have played a significant role in determining the path on climate change leading up to COP 28. Environmental activist Greta Thunberg has garnered global attention with her fiery calls for bold action on climate change, inspiring a new generation of climate activists. Business leaders like Elon Musk and figures in the finance sector have also made noteworthy contributions by investing in renewable energy and promoting sustainable business practices with frameworks like ESG.
The dominant viewpoint prior to COP 28 is made up of a range of perspectives, which will reflect the varying interests and priorities of stakeholders. Take for example more developed nations with higher levels of greenhouse gas emissions, they may emphasize technological innovation and market-based solutions to reduce emissions while keeping one eye on economic growth. While developing countries often advocate for the increase of financial and technical aid from wealthier nations to help them adapt to climate change and facilitate their transition to clean energy. Civil society organizations and indigenous groups advocate for a fair and equitable transition that prioritizes the rights and well-being of marginalized communities. The dominant viewpoint prior to COP 28 will evolve as new scientific discoveries, technological advancements, and changing geopolitical dynamics shape the global discourse on climate change. The forward progress may involve enhanced cooperation between world governments, multinational corporations, and civil society to accelerate the transition to a low-carbon economy. The emergence of innovative solutions to address the social and environmental aspects of climate change are inevitable because that is the oldest benchmark of human progress.
In conclusion, the overarching overall viewpoint prior to COP 28 represents a landmark moment in the global struggle to tackle climate change. Historical developments, influential figures, and scientific input all contribute to shaping the discussions and negotiations leading up to the conference. The impact of the prevailing viewpoint will determine the trajectory of global efforts to mitigate climate change and ensure a sustainable future for current and future generations. It is imperative to consider the diverse perspectives and potential future progress to chart a path towards a more resilient future.
This article was co-written by Justin Luke, ESG Research analyst and Aaron Turnquest, ESG Research Intern at THINK ESG LIMITED